The getWindowHandles() method in Selenium WebDriver is used to obtain a set of window handles for all the browser windows currently opened by the WebDriver instance. Each window handle is a unique identifier that allows testers to switch between different browser windows or tabs. Understanding how to use the getWindowHandles() method effectively is crucial for managing multiple windows or tabs during automated tests.


// Assuming 'driver' is an instance of WebDriver
Set<String> windowHandles = driver.getWindowHandles();


  1. Getting All Window Handles:
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(); 
// Open a new window or tab and navigate to a different URL
driver.executeScript("'', '_blank');"); 
// Get all window handles 
Set<String> windowHandles = driver.getWindowHandles();


import org.openqa.selenium.JavascriptExecutor;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;

import java.util.Set;

public class getWindowHandles {
    public static void main(String[] args) {

        // Set path to the ChromeDriver executable
        System.setProperty("", "path/to/chromedriver");

        // Initialize ChromeDriver and navigate to a URL
        WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();

        // Open a new window or tab and navigate to a different URL
        ((JavascriptExecutor) driver).executeScript("'', '_blank');");

        // Get all window handles
        Set<String> windowHandles = driver.getWindowHandles();
        // Print each window handle
        for (String handle : windowHandles) {
            System.out.println("Window Handle: " + handle);

        // Close the browser


  • Window Management: The getWindowHandles() method is essential for managing multiple browser windows or tabs, allowing testers to switch between them and perform actions on each.
  • Enhanced Testing Scenarios: It enables testing scenarios that involve multiple windows or tabs, such as popup windows, authentication windows, or links that open in new tabs.
  • Control and Navigation: By obtaining window handles, testers have more control over the browser session and can navigate between different windows or tabs efficiently.


  • Unique Identifiers: The getWindowHandles() method provides unique identifiers for windows, but it does not give any information about the content of the windows. Testers need to switch to each window and inspect its content to identify the desired window.
  • Resource Management: Managing multiple windows or tabs can consume more system resources. Ensure that windows or tabs are closed properly after testing to free up resources.


The getWindowHandles() method in Selenium WebDriver is a powerful tool for obtaining and managing window handles for all browser windows or tabs opened by the WebDriver instance. It is essential for handling multiple windows or tabs, enhancing testing scenarios, and providing greater control and navigation capabilities. By mastering the use of the getWindowHandles() method, testers can create robust and reliable automated scripts that accurately reflect the user experience of interacting with multiple windows or tabs in web applications.

Was this article helpful?
Leave a Reply 0

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *